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February 1, 2013

Bài Giải Đề Thi Học Sinh Giỏi Quốc Gia 2013 (Part 3)

Yêu Tiếng Anh - Tiếp theo bài giải Phần 2: Grammar - Kỳ thi chọn học sinh giỏi Quốc Gia 2013, mời các bạn xem TẠI ĐÂY, hôm nay Admin sẽ trình bày Phần 3: READING (5 parts) khá là dài. Mời các bạn tiếp tục theo dõi.Thân!
III. READING (50 points)

Part 1: Read the following passage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. Write your answer in corresponding numbered boxes. (0) has been done as example.

LEGAL FIGHT HITS MUSIC PIRATES
The global recording industry has launched its largest wave of legal (0) ____ against people suspected of (56)_______ music files on the Internet. The latest move by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) (57)_________2,100 alleged uploaders (58) _______ peer-to-peer (P2P) networks in 16 nations including the UK, France, Germany and Italy. Thousands of people have agreed to pay compensation since the campaign began. In the US, civil lawsuits have been (59) _______ against more than 15,597 people since September 2003 and there have been 3, 590 settlements. "This is a significant (60) _______ of our enforcement actions against people who are uploading and distributing illegal music on P2P networks." said IFPI chief John Kenedy. "Thousands of people - mostly Internet- savvy men in their 20s or 30s-have learnt to their (61) ________ the legal and financial risks involved in file-sharing copyrighted music in large quantities." Individual cases are generally brought by the national associations in the recording industry. The UK record industry has so far brought 97 cases, with a further 65 covered by the latest action.
  0.       A. Action        B. Activity         C. Acting         D. Acts
56.       A. Stealing       B. Sharing        C. Using          D. downloading
57.       A. Aimed         B. Targeted     C. Directed      D. Pointed
58.       A. Practising     B. Having         C. Applying      D. Using
59.       A. Carried        B. Instigated     C. Brought       D. Activated
60.       A. Aftermath     B. feature         C. Result           D. Escalation
61.       A. Cost            B. Charge         C. Benefit          D. Fortune

Part 2: For question 62-70, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Write your answer in corresponding numbered boxes. (0) has been done as example.

NOT JUST MAKING A GOOD STORY
Media interest is greater in those situations (0) where a communal of personal traumatic event fits the working criteria of newsworthiness , with the (62) thought that some events will attract wide media attention while (63) others are of little interest. Hence those events which (64) involve elite or representative persons, unpredictable or unusual tragedy, loss or sorrow, and that epitomize universal themes or the failure of technology (65) will be of greater interest and attract greater media attention than recurring everyday traumas such as disease or car fatalities. Most print or electronic journalists are (66) under strong pressure to report what has happened in such a way that it tells a good story and makes sense to readers and viewers so that they not only know what has happened, but fell it as well. This is a pressure that derives from forces (67) beyond the control of individual journalists imposed by the media system and the demands of the consumers of media products. The extent to (68) which these expectations can be meet within the practicalities of a trauma situation (69) depends generally on a complex mix of the personal stature and judgment of the journalist , the specific instructions of their mangers and the practical situation in which they (70) find themselves.

Part 3: For question 71-75 , choose the best phrase or sentences A-G ( given below the text) to fill each of the blanks in the following text. Write one letter (A-G) in corresponding numbered boxes. Two of the suggested answers do NOT fit at all.

CARS AND SOCIETY
Nowadays, just over half of all households in Britain have one or more cars. The increasing use of cars has had an enormous effect on society, health, the landscape and other aspects of life. In the 19th century railway caused workers in other transport industries to lose their jobs, but they also employed a great many people. In the twentieth century, railway workers lost their jobs as roads provided more employment.
(71) In general, car have increased people's chances of traveling for pleasure, and have opened up whole areas which were formerly inaccessible. Country parks, stately homes and other attractions often depend on access by car, for public transport rarely serves them.
(72) Increase mobility, mainly by car, also leads to facilities closing. As late as the 1950s almost every district had a number of corner shops. People used these shops for almost all the things they needed each day such as food, papers, and household goods. They would have gone into towns to visit the market and purchase items unobtainable locally perhaps only once or twice a month. Daily shopping was done within the local community, and the meetings with other people kept the community going.
(73) Nowadays, a large of percentage of people do their shopping at supermarkets, traveling further then before and going by car if possible. The use of car makes the journey easily and means that they can bring back enough shopping to last them a week or more. Cars have helped to drive many corner shops out of business.
(74) They depend on customers having cars, but many towns and cities now have giant shops selling do-it-yourself materials, and these are often in "out-of-town" centres or trading estates that are not served by bus. (75) However, many railways have been improved.
Many other facilities also depend on improved road transport, often involving the use of cars. Modern hospitals, schools, libraries and other institutions are often built to serve large areas. Compared with those which they have replaced they are fewer, larger and more remote from the people who use them.
A. However, many railways have been improved.
B. They depend on customers having cars.
C. Modern town-dwellers like to have private transport.
D. Nowadays, a large of percentage of people do their shopping at supermarkets
E. Nearly all shopping centres can be reached by bus as well as car
F. Increase mobility, mainly by car, also leads to facilities closing
G. In general, car have increased people's chances of traveling for pleasure

Part 4: Read the following extract and answer questions 76-85.

POINTERS TO LEARNING
1,  A lecture  may seem  to  be  well organised  in the  lecturer's  notes  but have  no apparent  pattern  when delivered. Ideally  students  should  be able  to  state  the intended  organisation,  and how  one  fact  is  broadly related  to the rest,  at any  time  during  the  lecture,  firstly  because  they  need  to take  notes  if  the  amount  of information  to be retained  exceeds  the amount they  can remember, and  secondly  because  these  links are essential  to understanding.
2.  It follows,  of  course, that  a lecture  is likely  to  be more effective if  its  organisation  is  given at the beginning. This can usually be done very naturally as an explanation of how the lecturer's objectives are to be achieved.  Certainly the dictum "first tell 'em what you're going to tell 'em. Then tell 'em what you've told 'em,"  can  usefully be  applied  to  lectures  and  is  particularly  appropriate  to those  who teach  a difficult  subject or  who cannot  easily  get  down to the students' level  of understanding.
3.  Some  lecturers  may feel  that by summarising all  they intend  to say  at the  beginning,  they  will have' shot their bolt'  and have nothing  left with  which to arouse interest  when attention flags.  ln this case the summary needs to be given  in  a way that whets the appetite  and the elaboration  of  points  will require  interesting details, visual  illustration,  humour and  an occasional anecdote.
4.  Itemising points has several advantages. Firstly, each item provides a peg on which detail may be hung. Secondly, while it  may be obvious  to  the  lecturer  that  he  is  going  on  to  a fresh point  this  is  not so obvious  to the listener, least  of all the student  who  is  not  already familiar  with the  topic.  Thirdly, if a student day-dreams, or has microsleeps, he may easily lose the thread of an argument. If points are itemised  he will know when  he  misses one and  he  will be  able to  pick up the lecturer's  drift again more  easily, latching  on  to the  point  that  follows.  He may also be able to fill in the missing point with the help of another student later. Just as most  people  are unaware  that  they  dream  3 or 4 times  each night  so  most students  are probably unaware  how much their minds wander  during  lectures. Fourthly, itemisation is an aid to memory.  Revision from  notes  is  more thorough  if  the students  know  "there  are  five  points  to  be  remembered  on  this topic and seven  on  the other."
5.  The organisation of a lecture will be clearer if the points are written on the board immediately after being mentioned.  Lecturers who are not confident of their ability on the blackboard are tempted to neglect it.  One way  over this  difficulty  is  to  use an overhead  projector  which may show  either normal  handwriting  done  at the time,  or prepared  acetate  sheets  which may  be  progressively  displayed  as  the lecture  develops. Alternatively,  a handout  containing  the main  heading well spaced,  with blanks in between  for  the  students  to add  supplementary  detail,  is  useful;  and since  handouts  may be passed  on  to  absentees,  they  are particularly valuable  at the  beginning  of a course  or at other times  when  it  is important  to  convey  the organisation of subject  matter.  Such displays  of lecture organisation (using  the  blackboard,  overhead projector,  handouts, or possibly  over  methods such as flannel  graphs  and  charts)  play  a particularly important  part  in  aiding  comprehension  when a flow  diagram  or other  complex  form  is  used  because the relations  between  possibly  abstract ideas  can be  pointed  out visually.
ln brief,  we can  say  information  must be organised  in  the  students’  mind and  not just in  the  lecturer's.

For questions 76-80, decide which of the notes below (A-H) best sums up each of the five Paragraphs.  Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes.

76. Paragraph 1 - D

77. Paragraph 2 - F

78. Paragraph 3 - C

79. Paragraph 4 - G
80. Paragraph 5 - A
A. Put it up on the black board.
B. Ways of making key points clear.
C. Maintaining interest.
D. Clear structures important.
E. Wandering minds.
F. State structure at start.
G. Why "key points" are useful.
H. Filling in the detail.

For questions 81-85, choose the answer which you think best completes the unfinished statements about the text. Indicate the answer A, B, C or D against the number of each question. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes.

81. A clear idea of what a lecture is all about is important because ________.
A. Students must always finish up with well- organised notes
B. It can capture students' interest
C. It can help the lecturer to present things more clearly
D. Students must see how the topic hangs together if they are to understand it
82. Students are likely to take in a lecture better if the lecture ___________.
A. Give them the summary before he begins
B. Arranges what he has to say in the best possible way
C. Improves his blackboard technique
D. Gives out or displays comprehensive notes
83. Some lecturers do not like giving an outline of their lecturers at the start because _____________.
           A. Their notes are well-planned but they cannot make things clear to their students
           B. They do not like repeating themselves
           C. They are afraid that the rest of the lecture will seem like an anti-climax
           D. They lack confidence in using the blackboard
84. Students whose minds wander easily __________.
           A. May fail to make sense of point in a lecture
           B. Lose arguments because they cannot follow what is being said
           C. Have an ability to "tune in" easily when their attention returns
           D. Seek help from other students to follow the lecture
85. Lecturers can use an overhead projector __________.
           A. To present key points in advance
           B. To present key points as they arise
           C. To help students understand what a "follow diagram" is
           D. To show students normal handwriting done on the spot

Part 5: Read the following extract from a newspaper article about environment. For questions 86-91 choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) according to the text. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes.
           
            Lomborg's book entitled The Skeptical Environmentalist cause an uproar when it was published in 1998. The author's beef is with the litany of doom espoused by certain environmental activists.  We have all heard the main points several times; natural resources are running out; the world's population is too big and growing at an alarming rate; rivers, lakes, oceans and the atmosphere are getting dirtier all the time. Forests are being destroyed, fish stocks are collapsing, 40 000 species a year are facing extinction and the planet is warming disastrously. The world is falling apart and it is our fault.
           Nonsense, says Lomborg. There are just scare stories put about by ideologues and promulgated by the media. There is little evidence that the world is in troubles, he claims, and a good deal more that suggests that we have never had it so good. Air quality in the developed world has improved markedly over the past 100 years. Human life expectancy has soared. The average inhabitant of the developing world consumes 38% more calories now than100 years ago, and the centage of people threatened with starvation has fallen from 35% to 18%. The hole in the ozone layer is more or less fixed; the global warming theory has been much exaggerated. And though we worry incessantly about pollution, the lifetime risk of drinking water laden with pesticides at the European Union safety limit is equivalent of smoking1.4 cigarettes. In short the world is not falling apart; rather the doom mongers have led us all down the garden path.
           "Lomborg" is the dirtiest word in environmental circles at the moment. Henning Sorenson, former president of Royal Danish Academy of Science, maintains that his fellow countryman is wrong, dangerous and lacking the professional training even to comprehend the data he presents. These are strong words. Sorenson was referring specifically to Lemborg's opinions on mineral resources, but this book contains sufficient biological nonsense to add ignorance of at least one more discipline to the charge sheet. For example, the long term growth in the number of species on Earth over the past 600m years - itself a disputed issue, though you would not know it - is accredited to "a process specialisation in which both due to the fact that the Earth's physical surroundings have become more diverse and a result of all other species becoming more specialized." One really has to look further than a United Nation Environment Programme report to understand such complex issues. And surely only a statistician could arrive at a figure of 0.7% extinction of all species on Earth in the next 50 years, when respectable estimates of total diversity range from 2m to 500m species ( not 2m-80m, as Lormborg claims ).
           However, my greatest concern is with Lomborg's tone. He is clearly committed to rubbishing the views of hand-picked environmentalists, frequently the very silly ones such as Ehrlich, whom professional have been ignoring for decades. This selective approach does not inspire much confidence: ridiculing idiots is easy. Who better to manipulate data in support of a particular point of view than a professional statistician? And who to trust with the task less than someone argues like a lawyer?
           The reader should be wary in particular of Lomborg's passion for global statistics; overarching averages can obscure a lot of important detail. The area of land covered with trees may not have changed much in the past 50 years, but this is mostly because northern forests have increased in area while the biologically richer tropical ones have declined. If you want to see how global trend translate into one particular local context, go to northern Scotland and gaze over immense plantations of America conifers that have replaced Britain's biologically unique native peatlands. And to balance the books, the area of noisome tree farms has to be reflected by deforestation somewhere else in the world, let's say Madagascar, for example. That the global forest area has remained more or less constant actually tell us nothing about the state of environment.
           So have we been led down the garden path by the environmentalists? Lomborg argues a convincing case with which I have much sympathy, but the reader should perhaps follow the author's lead and maintain a healthy scepticism. And if you come away with the nagging suspicion that Lomborg has a secret drawer of data that does not with his convictions, that you are quite probably a cynic.

86. Lomborg believes that __________.
           A. environmental pessimists have misrepresented the facts
           B. Not enough is being done to curb the world's population explosion
           C. We are abdicating our responsibilities in caring for the planet
           D. The dimensions of the global warming problem have been underestimated.
87. What evidence does Lomborg provide to support his point of view?
           A. The media have helped to spread panic.
           B. Cigarette smoking does not pose a lifetime risk.
           C. Overeating is becoming considerably more common.
           D. People tend to live longer than in the past.
88. Lomborg is unpopular in the environmental world because _____.
           A. He is not capable of understanding the complexities of environmental research.
           B. He makes use of unsupported claims to propose new theories.
           C. He simplifies existing data to support his own spurious claims.
           D. As a statistician he doesn't have the necessary background to attack existing findings.
89. What do Lomborgn and the writer have in common?
           A. A mistrust of lawyer
           B. A contempt for some environmentalists.
           C. A selective approach to global problems
           D. An admiration for statistician.
90. Why does the writer mention Scotland and Madagascar?
           A. As an example of deforestation
           B. As evidence that available data on forests is insufficient
           C. To show that global statistics can be misleading
           D. To show how natural vegetation is being threatened by imported trees.

For question 91-95, write in the corresponding numbered boxes.
Y         if the statement agrees with the writer
N        if the statement contradicts the writer
NG     if it is possible to say what the writer thinks about this

91. When published, Lomborg's book came in for a lot of criticism. - Y
92. Lomborg see eye to eye with the doom mongers on the idea that the world is falling apart as a result of man's fault. - N
93. Lomborg and Sorenson work for the same institution. - Y
94. The fluctuation of the area of land covered with trees can reveal much about the worsening environmental deterioration. - NG
95. On the whole, the writer remains skeptical about Lomborg's book. - Y

Have a good one!

Tommy Bảo - Yêu Tiếng Anh

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